Setting the Scene: Archive Research Sessions

Community Stadium logo_ArranHow has the area to the south of Huntington developed over time? What archaeological work has already taken place there? What do we know about the history of sport and supporters’ clubs in York? These are some of the many questions that a bright and eager group of York residents, students, professionals, and local history and archaeology enthusiasts set out to investigate in the Introduction to Research sessions organised by York Archaeological Trust as part of the Community Stadium project in March 2015.

Held in association with York Explore Library and Archives, City of York Council, and JORVIK DIG, the aim of the research sessions were to provide workshop-based training in archive study, online historical resources, and the Historic Environment Record for York. By looking at the broader history of Huntington and the wider context of sport in York, we also sought to expand our current knowledge and understanding beyond the area of excavation, and to enthuse and encourage the public to get involved in the project through documentary and archaeological research. The sessions were fully booked up and attended by 30 people over three days.

The archive sessions were held at the newly-refurbished York Explore Library and Archives and provided the opportunity for participants to explore historic maps and plans, written records dating to the 19th century, and photographs which detailed the history of sport in York.

The research team hard at work in the York Explore archives.

The research team hard at work in the York Explore archives.

Training was also given on how to use the local newspaper archive held on microfilm and online through The British Newspaper Archive.

Computer research at York Explore.

Computer research at York Explore.

York Archaeological Trust’s newly-created archaeology library at JORVIK DIG presented the ideal venue for the investigation of the historic environment in and around Huntington Stadium.

Researching the site's archaeological background at Dig.

Researching the site’s archaeological background at Dig.

Training was provided in how the Historic Environment Record database for York (a system recording information about monuments, historic landscapes and buildings) can be searched and interrogated for known archaeological activity in and  around the site of the new Community Stadium.

Previous YAT site reports provided some valuable background information.

Previous YAT site reports provided some valuable background information.

A number of themes and avenues for further examination emerged during the research sessions. In studying the historic maps and identifying landscape features and buildings, it became clear that the new Community Stadium is located in an area known historically as Huntington South Moor, which was characterised by open fields and scattered farms.

DSCF1705

Part of the 1852 OS map showing the Huntington Stadium site.

The current field pattern probably dates to 18th- or early 19th-century enclosure, though ridge and furrow dating to the medieval and post-medieval periods suggests long-term ploughing in the area. A number of lanes providing access through the landscape: New Lane, Jockey Lane, Brecks Lane and Butters Lane.  The 1852 map indicated that New Lane was formerly known as South Lane – an discovery which has important implications for any future historical research into the area. Huntington Grange, a listed building dating to the 18th century, is one of few surviving historic farms in the area.

In comparing the historic maps with aerial photographs taken in the 1930s, 1950s and 1980s, it became clear that the character of the area to the south of Huntington has changed significantly in the last 30 years. A high number of archaeological investigations have recently taken place ahead of new residential, commercial and industrial developments. Jockey Lane was extended in the 1980s to link New Lane and Malton Road, and to facilitate the busy out-of-town commercial area of Monks Cross.

Aerial view of YAT's 2003 excavation of the neighbouring Roman camp.

Aerial view of YAT’s 2003 excavation of the neighbouring Roman camp. Jockey Lane runs along the left side of the image.

The aerial photographs also showed the surviving Roman archaeology of Camp 1, and its relationship with the present field boundaries. A number of questions were raised about the Roman road network and possible routes between the fortress and the two camps identified in Huntington. Groves Lane, the suggested line of a road from the supposed north-east gate of the Roman Legionary fortress (Porta Decumana) has survived as a modern street and runs in a north-easterly direction, seemly towards the two camps.

The newspaper articles shed some light on the history of sport in York, along with a box of records in York Explore Archives relating to York City Knights and the Huntington Stadium.  The Huntington Stadium (formerly known as the Ryedale Stadium) was built in 1989. The York City Knights had previously occupied a stadium in Clarence Street in central York. Among the records were a series of photographs taken in the 1980s which documented the construction of the new stadium and showed one of the last games played at the former ground in Clarence Street . These relatively recent images captured an important moment in the club’s history, as well as showing how the location of sporting grounds in York has changed over time.

In addition to the historical and archaeological records , further information about the development of the Huntington area was identified by members of the group who had either lived there for several years, or knew the area well. Personal recollections shed light on former buildings such as the brewery on New Lane, which was built in the early 20th century and demolished to make way for the new housing development. Brewery Cottages on New Lane were purportedly built to house the employees of the brewery and now represent the final vestiges of this industry.

The archive and research sessions have highlighted the power of group research. This was shown in the sheer amount of information that was unearthed in a small timeframe, but also in the volume and sophistication of questions asked of the evidence, and the unique insights brought by a group with a broad knowledge-base and wide-ranging backgrounds.  Everyone who took part in the research sessions brought a fresh pair of eyes to the historical and archaeological evidence, which will in turn prove invaluable in assisting with the analysis and interpretation of the archaeology uncovered in excavation.

We’d be interested to hear from anyone with information about the development of Huntington South Moor, the history of sport in York, or with any memories or recollections of the area. Please get in touch: digyorkstadium@yorkat.co.uk

Jayne Rimmer

Further information:

York Historic Environment Record (HER):

http://www.york.gov.uk/info/200584/sites_and_ancient_monuments/446/sites_and_ancient_monuments/2

York Explore Library and Archives:

https://www.exploreyork.org.uk/client/en_GB/default/

JORVIK DIG:

http://digyork.com/

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Geophysics Results: ‘Beyond the Stadium’

Community Stadium logo_ArranDuring the construction of the present Huntington Stadium back in 1989, the site’s distant past as a Roman military camp was not yet known known. Construction work began and no-one was any the wiser of the site’s historic importance. Going back further, a number of earthwork sites to the north of York were mentioned in the work of 18th century antiquarians W. Stukeley and F. Drake, although precise locations of the camps weren’t given in most cases.

The first real documentation of the camp’s existence came during an aerial survey of the area by the RAF in the early 1950s. The site was clearly visible in the photographs, but would not be noticed until March 2002, when it was spotted by English Heritage archaeologists. This image taken by Anthony Crawshaw in 2003 shows the YAT excavation of the neighbouring Camp 2 nearing completion, with the earthworks of Camp 1 visible in the field below the stadium.

YAT's 2003 excavation of the neighbouring Roman camp.

YAT’s 2003 excavation of the neighbouring Roman camp.

These earthworks clearly follow the same orientation as those of Camp 2 and have the potential for some fascinating results. After completing their survey of the stadium pitch, our team of geophysics volunteers were keen to turn their attention to these remains of Camp 1 that extend beyond the stadium. While we cannot excavate this part of the camp, we can take a non-intrusive look beneath the topsoil through geophysical survey.

This area of the camp is a scheduled ancient monument, meaning that it is protected by law and will be preserved as it presently is in the ground. Lowland fortifications of this period are not common finds, the majority having been destroyed by centuries of ploughing or redevelopment – so we are very lucky to have this level of survival!

Laying out grids in high wind.

The geophysics team setting up a new grid square.

Between March 25th and 26th, our team of intrepid volunteers braved high winds and the watchful gaze of local sheep to carry out a full resistivity survey of the scheduled monument. As the team arrived on site, the earthworks were immediately recognisable on the ground. While the defensive bank only stands to around 20cm in height, the grass grows greener on its crest, making it stand out clearly.

The line of the Roman bank can be followed by the greener grass.

The line of the Roman bank can be followed by the greener grass.

This trend is even clearer with a little digital assistance. Low banks of medieval ridge and furrow ploughing can also be seen running left to right (marked red).

The bank of the Roman camp highlighted in white.

The bank of the Roman camp highlighted in white.

With the unpredictable weather of the British springtime in full effect, the team got to work. High winds and overgrowth made the task a little tricky, but a whopping 22 grid squares measuring 20m x 20m were surveyed!

Resistivity survey in action.

Resistivity survey in action.

Not even ill-placed trees could get in the way…

YAT's Jon Kenny leading the charge.

YAT’s Jon Kenny leading the charge.

With the data gathered, our community archaeologist Jon Kenny began to look at the results. Whereas the archaeology in the stadium is highly disturbed and masked by 600mm of rugby pitch, the area of the scheduled monument is in amazing condition. While it was ploughed and cultivated in the medieval period, it seems to have been used only as pasture in the intervening centuries. This means that the site has avoided damage from deep modern ploughing and the geophysics results therefore needed little interpretation!

huntres crop

Ta-dah!

The western corner of the camp is clearly visible in a high resistance response. This appears as a dark curvilinear, complete with the curved edge of the rectangle that is so typical of Roman marching camps. The high resistance response suggests compacted ground, which makes it highly likely that the dark curvilinear represents the bank of the camp as opposed to the ditch. Loose backfill material within a ditch would offer less response to an electrical current and therefore result in a lighter image. Defensive ditches almost always lay outside of the bank, whether or not the ditch is visible in a lighter response on the left side of the curvilinear bank is up to debate. What do you think?

The parallel lines running up and down the image represent medieval ridge and furrow ploughing. Overlaid on an aerial view of the site, the results make a lot of sense, sitting right where we would expect them to be.

Geophysics results overlaid on a Google Earth view of the site.

Geophysics results overlaid on a Google Earth view of the site.

Also appearing on the above overlay are the results from our February survey of the stadium pitch. It is immediately apparent that the responses from beneath the pitch are far more subtle. But why is this?

The overlay below includes our preliminary interpretation of the results, showing where we thought we had spotted trends that may indicate the presence of Roman defences.

Geophysics and interpretation.

Geophysics and interpretation. (Yellow lines represent a modern feature.)

The subtle responses we had interpreted as camp defences now seem less likely as they don’t quite fit with the orientation of the defences seen in the latest survey. Whether these responses are from an earlier phase of activity, or the remnants of internal features, will only be known when we excavate – but it is clear that we have no clear response from beneath the pitch. There are two possible explanations for this:

– The 600mm of turf, soil, gravel and sand that make up the pitch may have hidden more deeply buried features from the geophysics equipment.

– The remains of the camp were entirely destroyed by the construction of the stadium.

Both of these possibilities are entirely plausible, only by stripping away the overburden will we find the answer. The English Heritage scheduled monument register estimates the bank to be 6-7m in width, it is likely that this will have been destroyed by the construction of the stadium. The ditch however, is thought to be 6-10m in width and potentially 2m in depth. Elements of this are more likely to have survived the 1989 works and it is the backfills of the ditch that have the most potential to tell us about what the camp was built for and how it was used.

The defences of Huntington Camp 2 under excavation in 2003. Image copyright York Archaeological Trust

The defences of Huntington Camp 2 under excavation in 2003. Image copyright York Archaeological Trust

Looking back at the excavation of the neighbouring Camp 2 in 2003, we can clearly see substantial remains of defensive ditches. Admittedly, these had never been disturbed by building works, but they had been subject to intensive deep ploughing, something we believe Camp 1 to have escaped.

So, will we find the remains of the camp? Or will the banks and ditches have been lost to the 1989 building work? We’ll have to wait until May 25th to find out!

Thanks to the wonderful work by our community volunteer team, we now know a lot more about the remains of our camp that lie beyond the stadium and as we move through the spring, we will continue to add more depth and colour to the story of this remarkable site.

See you in the trench!

– Arran